Senior Lecturer, Biopharmaceutical Sciences
Department of Life & Sports Sciences
School of Science
Dr Simon Richardson, having received a BSc Hons in Ecology and Biotechnology, became interested in the modulating the regulation of genes as part of a Master's degree placement at Eli Lilly. After studying gene delivery and completing his PhD at the University of London, School of Pharmacy, he moved to Iowa, USA, to study cell biology (endocytosis and the regulation of membrane trafficking) as well as human gross anatomy which he taught as a Visiting Assistant Professor (Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Iowa).
Since 2007, Dr Richardson has been actively pursuing his own research interests combining molecular cell biology and drug delivery with the intention of developing new and more efficient anti-viral and anti-cancer medicines based upon nano-scale molecular medicines.
Responsibilities within the university
- Chair of the University Biological and Genetic Modification Safety Committee
- University Biological Safety Officer
- Chair of the Faculty of E-S Research Ethics Committee
- Faculty Research Ethics Committee representative to the University Research Ethics Committee
- School of Science Research and Enterprise Committee.
- Physiology and Pharmacology
- Physiological Systems and Regulation
- Analytical Biochemistry and Advanced Protein Biochemistry
- Cell and Microbial Biology
- Medicinal Chemistry and Therapeutics
- Drug Design and Delivery
- Medical Microbiology.
Current MPhil / PhD supervisions
- Mr Dongchu Wang (Started 2013)
- Ms Susan Shorter (started 2012)
- Mr Paul Dyer (0.5 FTE) (Transferred 12/2012)
- Mr Fredrick Momoh (MPhil)
- Dr Tatiana Christides (0.5 FTE) (Transfer pending)
- Claudia Cella, Advanced Biomaterials Platform, University of Milan, Italy (Started 2013).
Successful PhD supervisions
- Ms Marie Pettit
- Dr Fabio Fenili (University of Milan, Italy)
- Dr Arun Kumar Kotha (University of Greenwich, UK).
- Julie Dubois (Medway School of Pharmacy)
- Samiyah Hamid (School of Science)
- Edward Sayers (Cardiff University)
- Controlled Release Society (USA): Member
- American Society of Cell Biology: Member
- Society of Biology (UK): Member (MSB), Chartered Biologist (CBiol)
- Cardiff Institute of Tissue Engineering and Repair: Member
- Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences: Member
- Oligonucleotide Therapeutic Society: Member
- The Journal of Pharmaceutics
- Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology
Dr Richardson reviews for:
- The Wellcom Trust
- Journal of Controlled Release
In order to maintain homeostatic balance, mammalian cells compartmentalise, store and process material within organelles. In order to interact with and manipulate their environment, cells move material between membrane bound organelles in a highly regulated way. A well-studied example of one such process is that of endocytosis. Endocytosis is mediated by a succession of cargo sorting, membrane envagination, membrane fission, transport and fusion events that can result in the selective trafficking of both endogenous and exogenous material.
The regulated movement of membrane, and the proteins responsible for the regulation of cargo sorting, vesicle fission (budding), vesicle movement and subsequent fusion is collectively called membrane trafficking and is not limited to endocytosis but also incorporates processes such as organelle biogenesis and the secretion of biogenic signalling molecules.
Once the proteins responsible for regulating and mediating transport from one organelle to another have done their job, they are subject to retrieval (or retention) and this recycling process enables them to participate in subsequent rounds of sorting and movement. Several organisms (both bacterial and plant in origin) have evolved to take advantage of different steps associated with the retention and recycling of membrane components. Ribosome Inactivating Proteins (RIPs) are examples of molecules that can successfully escape the default endocytic pathway entering the cytosol to mediate intoxication resulting in cell death.
This phenomena is interesting as it demonstrates that it is possible to utilise the mammalian endomembrane system to effectively deliver a macromolecule to the cytosol of a cell, a goal that is also sought after by people attempting gene therapy. If these toxins can be made safe, (or used to identify the endogenous recycling domains they mimic) so facilitating the cytosolic delivery of macromolecular drugs, we may force a paradigm shift in both drug discovery and drug delivery.
Further a biocompatible water soluble polymer component can be used to facilitate the cell, tissue or organ specific delivery of this intracellular delivery system. A cartoon depicting this delivery system is shown.
Book chapters and review articles
Ruth Duncan and Simon C.W. Richardson (2012) Endocytosis and Intracellular Trafficking as Gateways for Nanomedicine Delivery: Opportunities and Challenges. Mol. Pharm. 9 (9): 2380-402.
Fabio Fenili, Elena Ferrari, Amedea Manfredi, Roberta Cavalli, Simon C.W. Richardson, Elisabetta Ranucci, and Paolo Ferruti (2012) Chapter 5: Poly(amido-amine)s as Carriers for Intracellular Delivery of Drugs and Proteins, in: Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery, Eds. Sebastian M., Ninan N. and Haghi, A. K. Apple Academic Press, Inc. New Jersey USA pp50-62 ISBN: 978-1-926895-17-8.
Paul D R Dyer, Arun K Kotha, Marie W Pettit, Simon C W. Richardson, (2012) Imaging Select Mammalian Organelles Using Fluorescent Microscopy: Application to Drug Delivery. In Methods in Molecular Biology: Cellular and subcellular nanotechnology. Humanan Press, ISBN978-1-62703-335-0, pp 195-210.
Fenili F., Manfredi A., Cavalli R., Lembo D., Richardson S. C.W., Ranucci E., Ferruti P. (2012) Poly(amidoamine)s and Cyclodextrin-Poly(amidoamine) Conjugates for Intracellular Delivery and Sustained Release of Proteins, Drug Delivery Letters (in press).
Pettit M.W, Griffiths P., Ferruti P., Richardson S.C.W.* (2011) Poly(amidoamine) polymers: soluble linear amphiphilic drug delivery systems for genes, proteins and oligonucleotide delivery, Therapeutic Delivery. 2(7): 907-917.
Dyer P.D.R. and Richardson S.C.W.* (2011) Delivery of biologics to select organelles - the role of biologically active polymers, Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 8(4):403-7.
Richardson S.C.W.* (2010) Tracking Intracellular Polymer Localisation Via Fluorescence Microscopy. In: Organelle-Specific Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Ed., Weissig V & D'Souza G. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New Jersey, pp177-192. ISBN 978-0-470-63165-2.
Ferruti P., Duncan R. and Richardson S. (1998) Tailor-made soluble polymer carriers, In: Targeting of Drugs 6: Strategies for stealth therapeutic systems, Ed., Gregoriadis G, McCormac B, Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, pp 207-224. ISBN 0-306-45937-X.
Griffiths P.C., Mauro N., Murphy D.M., Carter E., Richardson S.C., Dyer P. and Ferruti P. (2012) Self-assembled PAA-based nanoparticles as potential gene and protein delivery systems. Macromolecular Bioscience 13 (5): 641-649 (DOI = 10.1002/mabi.201200462).
Liu X., Hein J., Richardson S. C. W., Basse P. H., Moore P. S., Gjoerup O. V, and Chang Y., (2011), Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen disrupts lysosome clustering by translocating human VAM6P to the nucleus, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 86 (19):17079-90.
Ferguson E., Richardson S., Duncan R. (2010) Studies on the Mechanism of Action of Dextrin-Phospholipase A2 and its Suitability for use in Combination Therapy. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 7 (2) 210-321.
Richardson S.C.,* Pattrick N. G., Lavignac N., Ferruti P., Duncan R. (2010) Intracellular fate of bioresponsive poly(amidoamine)s in vitro and in vivo, J. Controlled Release, 142: 78-88 (Cover story: Park K (Editor in chief) (2010) Endocytic uptake and intracellular trafficking of poly(amidoamine)s J. Controlled Release, 142: 78-88.
Spencer J., Rathnam R. P., Motukuri M., Kotha A. K., Richardson S. C. W., Hazrati A., Hartley J. A., Male L., Hursthousec M. B. (2009), Synthesis of a 1,4-Benzodiazepine Containing Palladacycle with in vitro Anticancer and Cathepsin B Activity, Dalton Transactions, 22: 4299–4303.
Spencer J., Mendham A.P., Kotha A. K., Richardson S. C. W., Hillard E. A., Jaouen G, Vessières A., Male L., Hursthouse M. B. (2008) Structural and Biological Investigation of Ferrocene-Substituted 3-Methylidene-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ones. Dalton Transactions, 6: 918-921.
Richardson S. C. W.* Wallom K.-L,, Ferguson E. L., Deacon S. P. E., Davies M. W., Powell A. J., Piper R. C. and Duncan R. (2008) The Use of Fluorescence Microscopy to Define Polymer Conjugate Localisation to Late Endocytic Compartments in Fixed and Live Target Cells. J. Controlled Release, 127, 1-11.
Zhang Y., Zolov S. N., Chow C. Y., Richardson S. C., Piper R. C., Yang B., Westrick R. J., Meisler M. H., and Weisman L. S. (2007) A Defect in the Signaling Lipid Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate Causes Neurodegeneration in Mice. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 104 (44); 17518-17523.
Chu Y., Piper R., Richardson S., Watanabe Y., Patel P. and Heistad D. (2006) Endocytosis of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase into Endothelial Cells: Role of Heparin-Binding Domain. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 26 (9), 1985-90.
Pryor P. R., Mullock B. M., Bright N. A., Lindsay M.R., Gray S. R., Richardson S.C.W., Stewart A., James D.E., Piper R.C. and Luzio J.P. (2004) Combinatorial SNARE complexes with VAMP7 or VAMP8 define different late endocytic fusion events. EMBO Reports. 5 (6), 1-6.
Richardson, S. C. W., Winistorfer S. C., Poupon, V., Luzio, J. P. and Piper, R. C. (2004), Mammalian late Vps orthologues participate in early endosomal fusion and interact with the cytoskeleton, Mol. Biol. Cell, 15, 1197–1210.
Pattrick N.G., Richardson S. C. W., Casolaro M., Ferruti P. and Duncan R. (2001), Poly(amidoamine) mediated intracytoplasmic delivery of ricin A-chain and gelonin, J. Controlled Release, 77, 225- 232.
Pedone E., Cavallaro G., Richardson S. C. W., Duncan R. and Giammona G. (2001), poly(asparthylhydrazide)- glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride copolymers (PAHy-GTA): novel polymers with potential for DNA delivery J. Controlled Release, 77, 139-153.
Richardson S. C. W., Pattrick N. G., Man Y. K. S., Ferruti P. and Duncan R. (2001), Poly(amidoamine)s as potential non-viral vectors: Ability to form interpolyelectrolyte complexes and mediate transfection in vitro. Biomacromol. 2 (3), 1023-1028.
Ferruti P., Manzoni S., Richardson S. C. W., Duncan R., Pattrick N. G, Mendichi R. and Casolaro M. (2000) Amphoteric linear poly(amidoamine)s as endosomolytic polymers: correlation between physicochemical and biological properties. Macromol. 33 (21), 7793-7801.
Richardson S., Ferruti P. and Duncan R. (1999), Poly(amidoamine)s as potential endosomolytic polymers: Evaluation in vitro and body distribution in normal and tumour bearing animals. J. Drug Targeting, 6 (6), 391-404.
Richardson S. C. W., Kolbe H. V. and Duncan R. (1999), Potential of low molecular mass chitosan as a DNA delivery system: Biocompatibility, body distribution and ability to complex and protect DNA. Int. J. Pharm., 178, 231-243.
Recent conference presentations
Richardson S. C. W. (2011) (Invited Speaker), Departmental Seminar at Centro de Investigación Príncipe Felipe, Velencia, Spain.
Richardson, S. (2010). Unzipping our genes: DNA – from designer drugs to designer babies. University of Greenwich, School of Science, 2010–11 Public Lecture Series, 27 October 2010, University of Greenwich.
Richardson S. C. W. (2009) (Invited Speaker), Copying Nature in Order to Safely Deliver Macromolecules to the Cytosol: The Use of Polymers and Recombinant Proteins, Proceedings of the 36th International Symposium on Controlled Release of Bioactive Materials, Copenhagen, Denmark, 19-21 July.
Richardson S.C. W., Jones A., Gumbleton M. (2009) Endocytosis in Drug Delivery. Workshop at the 2nd ESF Nanomedicines Sumer school, Lisbon, Portugal, June.
Richardson S., Man S., Ferruti P., Manzoni S. and Duncan R. (1999), Poly(amidoamine)s: evaluation as potentially endosomolytic polymers, Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Controlled Release of Bioactive Materials, Boston, USA, 20-23 June, 434-435.
Richardson S., Ferruti P. and Duncan R. (1998), The body distribution of poly(amidoamine)s and there DNA complexes, Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Polymer Therapeutics: From the Laboratory to Clinical Practice, London, UK, 7-9 January.
Richardson S., Bignotti F., Ferruti P. and Duncan R., (1997), Poly(amidoamine)s as potential delivery systems for oligonucleotides, Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Polymer Therapeutics: From the Laboratory to Clinical Practice, Kumamoto, Japan, 18-20 April.
Richardson S., Bignotti F., Ferruti P. and Duncan R., (1996), Poly(amidoamine)s as pH sensitive drug carriers: Evaluation of biocompatibility and membrane interactions, Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Polymer Therapeutics: From the Laboratory to Clinical Practice, 10-12 January.
Richardson S., Chibber R., Murthy R., Vaghela B., and Kohner E. M. (1994), The hypoxia mediated expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) by Human Retinal Pericytes (HRP), EASD associated symposium Diabetic microvascular complications, Bochum, Germany, 27 September.